Teacher, scholar, translator, secret agent for the United States in the Netherlands.
A great American enthusiast, he probably met Franklin when he went to the Netherlands (1766). At Franklin’s request, became an agent for the Committee of Secret Correspondence (1775-96). Took an oath of allegiance to the United States (1780).
Settled in the Hague (c. 1750). One of the writers of La Bibliothèque des Sciences et des Arts (1754-80). Translated various books into French, including William Smith’s An Historical Account of the Expedition Against the Ohio Indians, in the Year 1764, Under the Command of Henry Bouquet (1769), a copy of which he sent to Franklin, and Emerich de Vattel’s Treatise on International Law.
Recommended but not confirmed as first secretary to the Hôtel des Etats Unis by John Adams, then Minister Plenipotentiary for the United States.
Born in Kloster Heilbron, Ansbach.