Studied medicine in England with John Fothergill (1775). Visited Franklin in France on his way back to America (1776).
Surgeon in the Continental army; surgeon general of Pennsylvania (1778-84). After the war, became a successful private physician.
Trustee of the University of Pennsylvania (1779-81). Taught chemistry and medicine there from 1789 until his death.
Member of the American Philosophical Society. Served on the staff of the Pennsylvania Hospital.
Born at Wakefield Township, Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Married Sidney Evans Howell after the death of his first wife, Lydia Biddle.